Economy is very important in endurance sports. We often disregard this aspect in cycling and running as we focus more on fitness, equipment, aerodynamics, weight or mental strength.

The LEOMO device offers the possibility to measure how economical we are at various intensities. The Holy Grail is to be more economical for the same effort, which results in faster times. Over short period of times this might be a few seconds, but over a long-distance cycling events or a marathon this could be many minutes. By being more economical we also fatigue less. Save your energy for when it matters!

Although the LEOMO was specifically designed to improve your cycling and running economy, it can also be used for many different sports and exercices. We could measure how much your angles improve in your squat. We could measure how much progress you are making on your stretching. Depending on what you want and need to measure we can adapt and provide concrete data to track your progress.

Some of the performance indicators are well known, but others are specific to LEOMO. Many professional cycling teams and Olympic runners are using information from the LEOMO to improve their economy at the highest level – the concept of marginal gains. But bio-mechanical and movement economy can have great effects on beginners and amateurs too.

Cycling and running are for sure mainly cardio driven sports – but there are many other parameters involved. For cycling you can improve aerodynamics and pedalling smoothness; and for running you can improve technique. The more economical the less effort and the less fatigued you will be. Save your energy for when it matters the most !

Motion performance indicators for cyclists

Generating power on the bike is what makes you go forward. Although pushing hard on the pedals will have the great effect, you can save energy and also reduce the risk of injuries by pedalling more smoothly and economically. Being aerodynamic reduces drag and thus makes you faster, and being more economical will make you go even faster.


Dead Spot Scores (DSS) pinpoint the magnitude and locations where pedalling velocities lack smoothness along the left and right pedalling cycle


Foot Angular Range (Q1) shows the foot angular range of the first quadrant of the pedalling cycle – 12 o’clock to 3 o’clock position. Foot Angular Range measures how much the heel moves up and down while pedalling.

Leg AR

Leg Angular Range measures how much the thighs move up and down while pedalling.

Leg Smoothness

Leg Smoothness is an MPI that shows how smooth your thigh movements are when pedalling. It measures the smoothness of the thigh movement from the uppermost position of the knee to the lowermost position of the knee.

Pelvic angle, rock and rotation

Pelvic Angle measures how much the pelvis is tilted upwards. Pelvic Rotation measures the angular rotational range of the sacrum’s local vertical axis per second. Pelvic Rock measures the angular rotational range of the sacrum along its local sagittal axis per second.

Torso angle, rock & rotation

Torso Angle indicates in degrees how much the chest is tilted upward relative to gravity. Torso Rotation measures the average angular rotational range of the chest. Torso Rock measures the average angular rotational range of the chest to the left and right.

Motion performance indicators for runners

Have you seen how relaxed elite runners look when they run? And have you tried to match their speed once? You can have the greatest VO2 and yet not be capable of running fast. Why? Technique. Elite runners have great technique and are extremely economical. Yes you can run harder but at some point you will be limited because of lack of technique, or you will tire at the end of a marathon because you wasted energy. Being economical makes you go faster.

Running harder with incorrect technique and form will simply reinforce bad habits. By using LEOMO you can pinpoint weaknesses in your stride and rectify thoses errors by performing running drills. Once your technique and form improve you will be more economical and therefore fatigue less at the same speed. Only then is the right time to increase the pace as you now have the right technique and therefore reinforcing good habits.

Ground Contact Time

Ground Contact Time is one of the most common values in running evaluations. It refers to the time duration it takes from the time the foot lands to the time it takeoff the ground when standing phase.

Strike Angular Range

Strike Angular Range (Strike AR) is the angular range of the shin from maximal forward extension until initial ground contact.

Heel Pitch

Heel Pitch measures how quickly the vertical impact force of landing is processed and transferred into a horizontal propulsive force.

Recoil Angular Range

Recoil Angular Range (Recoil AR) measures the angle of the shin between the moment of toe-off to the height of the rear kick of the foot. The higher the Recoil AR number, the more efficiently a runner can use their core muscles and lower leg muscles to swing their leg forward in the next phase of the stride.

Thigh Swing Speed

Thigh Swing Speed measures the maximum speed of the driving thigh during the swing phase.


Smoothness is a measure of the lateral pelvic movement during each stride, an indicator of stride stability.


Here is an analysis of a runner. We can clearly see the weaknesses on the radar chart. Although this runner has fantastic smoothness, landing pattern and edge landing, clearly he needs to work on his recoil and strike angular ranges. A few drills can help this in order to make this athlete faster for the same effort.